Orthopedic traumatologists perform expert diagnoses (radiation, laboratory), conservative therapy (drugs, intra-articular injections, PRP therapy, cellular technologies of regenerative medicine, etc. ) and high-tech surgical treatment of gonarthrosis (osteoarthritis of the knee joint) - arthroscopy, endoprosthesis, osteotomy. . .
Gonarthrosis is observed in every tenth person over the age of 55, every quarter of these patients leads to disability.
Up to 80% of patients with knee osteoarthritis report a decrease in quality of life.
The duration of operation of a modern knee joint endoprosthesis 10 years after the operation is 99%, after 15 years - 95%, after 20 years - 90%.
Why does osteoarthritis of the knee joint occur?
- Most often, the cause of the development of the disease is knee injuries, especially repeated ones (damage to the menisci, dislocations, fractures, hematomas, etc. ).
- Frequently recurring microtraumas of the joint act in a similar way during sports training, with constant work "on the legs".
- Excess body weight creates an increase in axial load and destroys the joint.
- A degenerative-dystrophic process in the joint can also occur after inflammatory diseases (arthritis with gout, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis).
- Endocrine diseases, changes in hormonal levels (for example, menopause), metabolic disorders aggravate pathological changes in the joint.
Main symptoms of the knee joint
- With gonarthrosis of 1 degree - in the initial stage of the disease, there is periodic pain in the knee joint after exercise (walking, running, standing for a long time), which disappears after rest. At this stage, there is virtually no joint deformation, limitation of mobility;
- Gradually, the pains become more frequent and worse, especially when going up and down stairs, as well as at the beginning of the walk after a long session (initial pains);
- With gonarthrosis, grade 2 pain in the knee becomes constant under load, disappears only after a long rest, the patient limps when walking;
- When you move, a creak appears in the joint. The range of motion in the knee joint is limited (when you bend "all the way" there is severe pain);
- When examining the joint area, swelling, deformation can be noted;
- With DOA of the knee joint of grade 3, which corresponds to severe gonarthrosis, pain in the joint bothers even at rest, does not allow to fall asleep, the range of motion decreases significantly, patients walk on bent legs, there is a pronounced deformation of the knee joint (O-shaped or X-shaped legs).
- The interview and examination by a traumatologist-orthopedist reveals the typical signs of degenerative-dystrophic diseases of the joint (pain on palpation, limitation of mobility, crepitus, deformity, presence of effusion in the joint).
- An X-ray examination of the knee joint is performed (narrowing of the joint space by X-rays, the presence of osteophytes, subchondral sclerosis is determined), if necessary, a computed tomography of the joint.
- Ultrasound examination of the joint can detect thinning of the cartilage in the joint, changes in the ligaments, muscles, soft tissues around the joint, inflammatory effusion in the joint cavity, changes in the menisci.
- The most accurate information is provided by MRI of the knee joint, which reveals changes in cartilage and bone tissue, ligaments, menisci, synovial membrane, which allows to differentiate post-traumatic osteoarthritis of the knee joint and the arthritis, a tumor processes.
- Diagnostic puncture and arthroscopy of the knee joint, as well as laboratory examination of the synovial fluid obtained during the procedure, are widely used in the diagnosis of joint diseases.
Treatment of gonarthrosis
Treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee depends on the stage of the disease.
In the early stages of DOA, successful complex conservative treatment is possible, aimed at stopping inflammation, restoring cartilage, eliminating pain, fully restoring joint function:
- Therapeutic and protective regimen: it is necessary to limit the load on the joint, to ensure peace.
- Conservative drug treatment of gonarthrosis:
- the use of analgesics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, chondroprotectors;
- local use of drugs in the form of ointments, gels;
- intra-articular injection intra-articular injection of an individually selected combination of medicines, which may include hormonal agents for rapid relief of inflammation, hyaluronic acid preparations for replenishing synovial fluid, etc. ;
- PRP therapy - intra-articular injections of PRP (own platelet-rich plasma).
- Methods of regenerative medicine - intra-articular injections of autologous cells of the stromal-vascular fraction, cells - precursors of cartilage tissue, obtained from its own adipose tissue.
- Massages, physiotherapy, manual therapy.
- Mandatory use of physical therapy with a set of exercises aimed at improving blood circulation in the joint, increasing the range of motion.
With pronounced changes in the joint (advanced osteoarthritis, traumatic defects), orthopedic traumatologists perform surgical treatment of arthrosis of the knee joint by arthroscopy (operations on the meniscus, cartilage, removal of the "joint mouse", synovectomy, etc. ). .
If other methods of treatment are ineffective, we perform knee arthroplasty using modern prostheses from the best manufacturers in the world. It is a reliable way to relieve patient pain and restore mobility and a decent quality of life.
In our time, there is no point in putting up with the pain and discomfort of joint pain. Modern medical technologies can help with osteoarthritis of the knee joint in almost all stages. Consult your doctor and take advantage of existing opportunities.